عوامل ضروری برای موفقیت همکاری فناورانه نامتقارن بین شرکت‌های بزرگ و کوچک در بخش نانوفناوری ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری سیاست گذاری علم و فناوری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات؛ دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد؛دانشگاه تربیت مدرس؛ تهران؛ ایران

3 معاون پژوهشی دانشکده مدیریت، علم و فناوری دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر

4 پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری

چکیده

تغییرات فضای کسب‌وکار در طی سال‌های اخیر باعث شده است که بسیاری از شرکت‌های بزرگ به دنبال همکاری فناورانه نامتقارن با شرکت‌های کوچک باشند. با این حال به دلیل پیچیدگی و چندبعدی بودن فرآیند همکاری نرخ شکست آن‌ها بالا است. لذا شناسایی عوامل موثر بر موفقیت همکاری‌های فناورانه نامتقارن ضروری است. با این حال اغلب مطالعات قبلی متمرکز بر بررسی یک یا چند عامل محدود بوده یا در بافت کشورهای توسعه‌یافته انجام شده‌اند. لذا پژوهش حاضر سعی دارد با مطالعه 8 مورد تجربه همکاری فناورانه نامتقارن در بخش نانو فناوری ایران عوامل ضروری برای موفقیت همکاری‌ها را شناسایی کند. لذا با روش مطالعه چند موردی و مقایسه میزان حضور عوامل در بین موردهای موفق و ناموفق، یک گونه‌شناسی از عوامل موثر بر همکاری فناورانه نامتقارن در بخش نانو فناوری ایران ارائه شد. در نهایت نیز با توجه به گونه‌شناسی عوامل، 16 عامل به عنوان عوامل ضروری برای موفقیت همکاری‌های فناورانه نامتقارن شناخته شدند که از جمله مهمترین آن‌ها می‌توان به شفافیت اهداف و وظایف طرفین همکاری، همراستایی فناوری با نیاز متقاضی و تقارن اطلاعات اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Essential factors for successful asymmetric technological collaboration between large and small firms in Iran's nanotechnology sectors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arman khaledi 1
  • Shaban Elahi 2
  • Mehdi Majidpour 3
  • Reza Asadifard 4
1 PhD in Science and Technology Policy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of information technology management,faculty of management and economics,Tarbiat Modares university,Tehran,Iran
3 iran
4 Technology Studies Institute
چکیده [English]

Changes in the business environment over recent years have led many large companies to seek asymmetric technological collaboration with small firms. However, because of the complexity and multidimensionality of collaboration process, their failure rate is high. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the success factors of asymmetric technological collaboration. However, most previous studies focused on the study of one specific factor or have been conducted in the context of developed countries. Therefore, the present article attempts to identify the essential factors for the success of collaboration by studying 8 cases (Multi-case study) of asymmetric technological collaboration in Iran's nanotechnology sector.The results of the analysis led to the identification of 16 essential success factors for asymmetric technological collaborations, including transparency of goals and tasks, alignment of technology with the requirements of large firms and information asymmetry

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Asymmetric Technological collaboration
  • large firms
  • Small Firms
اسدی‌فرد, ر. & خالدی, آ. 1398. چالشهای همکاری فناورانه‌ نامتقارن شرکتهای بزرگ با شرکتهای کوچک فناوری‌محور نانو. سیاست علم و فناوری, 11, 15-30.
باقری, ا. & بوشهری, ع. 1392. مدل سازی عوامل موثر بر دستاوردهای همکاری های فناورانه: مورد کاوی همکاری های فناورانه نانوفناوری در ایران. مدیریت نوآوری, 2, 113-140.
سپهری, م., صالحی‌یزدی, ف. & بحرینی, م. 1390. مطالعه فضای همکاری‌های علمی-فنی شرکت‌های نانو در ایران با استفاده از نظریه شبکه‌های اجتماعی و رجوع به خبرگان. سیاست علم و فناوری, 3, 49-60.
معاونت‌علمی‌و‌فناوری‌ریاست‌جمهوری 1395. گزارش تحلیلی طرح ملی پیمایش نوآوری ایران: بازه زمانی 1391 تا 1393. تهران.
معزز, ه., ترابی خرق, م., نیلفروشان, ه. & صاحبکار خراسانی, س. م. 1397. چالش های شکل دهی شبکه همکاری مهندسی شده (مطالعه موردی شبکه همکاری شرکت پویندگان راه سعادت). مدیریت نوآوری, 7, 85-112.
Ahmadvand, E., Salami, S. R., Soofi, J. B. & Tabatabaeian, S. H. 2018. Catch-up process in nanotechnology start-ups: The case of an Iranian electrospinning firm. Technology in Society, 55, 1-8.
Alvarez, S. A. 2000. Entrepreneurial alliances: Prescriptions for alliance success with larger firms.
Arend, R. J. 2009. Reputation for cooperation: contingent benefits in alliance activity. Strategic Management Journal, 30, 371-385.
Arranz, N. & De Arroyabe, J. C. F. 2008. The choice of partners in R&D cooperation: An empirical analysis of Spanish firms. Technovation, 28, 88-100.
Bannerjee, S., Bielli, S. & Haley, C. 2016. Scaling together: Overcoming barriers in corporate-stratup collaboration. London.
Barzi, F., Cortelezzi, F., Marseguerra, G. & Zoia, M. G. 2015. Cooperative innovation: In quest of effective partners. Evidence from Italian firms. Innovation, 17, 281-307.
Bayona, C., Garcı́a-Marco, T. & Huerta, E. 2001. Firms’ motivations for cooperative R&D: an empirical analysis of Spanish firms. Research Policy, 30, 1289-1307.
Belderbos, R., Cassiman, B., Faems, D., Leten, B. & Van Looy, B. 2014. Co-ownership of intellectual property: Exploring the value-appropriation and value-creation implications of co-patenting with different partners. Research policy, 43, 841-852.
Berthon, B., Kavathekar, J., Morvan, L., Hintermann, F. & Vazirani, M. 2015. Harnessing the power of entrepreneurs to open innovation. Accenture.
Bessant, J. & Rush, H. 1995. Building bridges for innovation: the role of consultants in technology transfer. Research policy, 24, 97-114.
Boon, A. V. D. & Faynshteyn, M. 2017. How Can Startups Collaborate with Large Companies? In: VANHAVERBEKE, W. (ed.) Managing Open Innovation in SMEs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brunswicker, S. & Chesbrough, H. 2018. The Adoption of Open Innovation in Large Firms: Practices, Measures, and Risks A survey of large firms examines how firms approach open innovation strategically and manage knowledge flows at the project level. Research-Technology Management, 61, 35-45.
Casals, F. E. The SME Co-operation Framework, a Multi-method Secondary Research Approach to SME Collaboration.  2010 International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics. IPEDR, 2011a.
Casals, F. E. The SME co-operation framework: A multi-method secondary research approach to SME collaboration.  2010 International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics IPEDR, 2011b. 118-124.
Chaston, I. 1999. Existing propensity to cooperate: an antecedent influencing the potential performance of small-business networks? Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 17, 567-576.
Chen, D. & Karami, A. 2010. Critical success factors for inter-firm technological cooperation: an empirical study of high-tech SMEs in China. International Journal of Technology Management, 51, 282-299.
Christensen, J. L., Schibany, A. & Vinding, A. L. 2001. Collaboration between manufacturing firms and knowledge institutions on product development: evidence from harmonised surveys in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Norway and Spain. Innovative Networks, Co-Operation in National Innovation Systems, 253-278.
Clegg, B., Minshall, T., Mortara, L., Elia, S. & Probert, D. 2008. Development of practitioner guidelines for partnerships between start‐ups and large firms. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management.
Cunha, R. E., Neves, P., Story, J., Valdés-Llaneza, A. & García-Canal, E. 2015. The devil you know? A review of the literature on the impact of prior ties on strategic alliances. Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management.
Dasí-Rodríguez, S. & Pardo-Del-Val, M. 2015. Seeking partners in international alliances: The influence of cultural factors. Journal of Business Research, 68, 1522-1526.
Datar, S., Frankel, R. & Wolfson, M. 2001. Earnouts: The effects of adverse selection and agency costs on acquisition techniques. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 17, 201-238.
Diestre, L. & Rajagopalan, N. 2012. Are all ‘sharks’ dangerous? new biotechnology ventures and partner selection in R&D alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 33, 1115-1134.
Doz, Y. L. & Hamel, G. 1998. Alliance advantage: The art of creating value through partnering, Harvard Business Press.
Dul, J. & Hak, T. 2007. Case study methodology in business research, Routledge.
Duysters, G. & Hagedoorn, J. 2000. Organizational modes of strategic technology partnering.
Dyer, J. H. & Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of management review, 23, 660-679.
Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. Building theories from case study research. Academy of management review, 14, 532-550.
Eisenhardt, K. M. & Schoonhoven, C. B. 1996. Resource-based view of strategic alliance formation: Strategic and social effects in entrepreneurial firms. organization Science, 7, 136-150.
Emden, Z., Calantone, R. J. & Droge, C. 2006. Collaborating for new product development: selecting the partner with maximum potential to create value. Journal of product innovation management, 23, 330-341.
Fadol, Y. Y. & Sandhu, M. A. 2013. The role of trust on the performance of strategic alliances in a cross‐cultural context. Benchmarking: An International Journal.
Franco, M. 2011. Determining factors in the success of strategic alliances: an empirical study performed in Portuguese firms. European Journal of International Management, 5, 608-632.
Gomes, E., Barnes, B. R. & Mahmood, T. 2016. A 22 year review of strategic alliance research in the leading management journals. International business review, 25, 15-27.
Hanna, V. & Walsh, K. 2008. Interfirm cooperation among small manufacturing firms. International small business journal, 26, 299-321.
Higgins, M. J. & Rodriguez, D. 2006. The outsourcing of R&D through acquisitions in the pharmaceutical industry. Journal of financial economics, 80, 351-383.
Hoffmann, W. H. & Schlosser, R. 2001. Success factors of strategic alliances in small and medium-sized enterprises—An empirical survey. Long range planning, 34, 357-381.
Hogenhuis, B. N., Van Den Hende, E. A. & Hultink, E. J. 2016. When Should Large Firms Collaborate with Young Ventures? Understanding young firms’ strengths can help firms make the right decisions around asymmetric collaborations. Research-Technology Management, 59, 39-47.
Hogenhuis, B. N., Van Den Hende, E. A. & Hultink, E. J. 2017. Unlocking the innovation potential in large firms through timely and meaningful interactions with young ventures. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21, 1750009.
Howells, J. 2006. Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation. Research policy, 35, 715-728.
Imaginatik & Masschallenge 2016. The state of startup/corporate collaboration 2016.
Jiang, X., Li, M., Gao, S., Bao, Y. & Jiang, F. 2013. Managing knowledge leakage in strategic alliances: The effects of trust and formal contracts. Industrial Marketing Management, 42, 983-991.
Kale, P., Dyer, J. H. & Singh, H. 2002. Alliance capability, stock market response, and long‐term alliance success: the role of the alliance function. Strategic management journal, 23, 747-767.
Kang, I., Han, S., Lee, J. & Olfman, L. 2016. An evolutionary perspective of opportunism in high-technology alliance: the evidence from South Korean companies. Asia Pacific Business Review, 22, 238-261.
Kavusan, K., Noorderhaven, N. G. & Duysters, G. M. 2016. Knowledge acquisition and complementary specialization in alliances: The impact of technological overlap and alliance experience. Research policy, 45, 2153-2165.
Khamseh, H. M. & Jolly, D. R. 2008. Knowledge transfer in alliances: determinant factors. Journal of Knowledge Management.
Kim, J. W. & Higgins, M. C. 2007. Where do alliances come from?: The effects of upper echelons on alliance formation. Research Policy, 36, 499-514.
Kohler, T. 2016. Corporate accelerators: Building bridges between corporations and startups. Business Horizons, 59, 347-357.
Kuglin, F. A. & Hook, J. 2002. Building, leading, and managing strategic alliances: how to work effectively and profitably with partner companies, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Lai, J.-H., Chang, S.-C. & Chen, S.-S. 2010. Is experience valuable in international strategic alliances? Journal of International Management, 16, 247-261.
Lai, W.-H. & Chang, P.-L. 2010. Corporate motivation and performance in R&D alliances. Journal of Business Research, 63, 490-496.
Lavie, D., Haunschild, P. R. & Khanna, P. 2012. Organizational differences, relational mechanisms, and alliance performance. Strategic Management Journal, 33, 1453-1479.
Lee, K., Park, I. & Yoon, B. 2016. An approach for r&d partner selection in alliances between large companies, and small and medium enterprises (smes): Application of bayesian network and patent analysis. Sustainability, 8, 117.
Lee, S., Park, G., Yoon, B. & Park, J. 2010. Open innovation in SMEs—An intermediated network model. Research policy, 39, 290-300.
Leverick, F. & Littler, D. 1993. Risks and Rewards of Collaboration: A Survey of Product Development Collaboration in UK Companies, Manchester School of Management.
Lhuillery, S. & Pfister, E. 2009. R&D cooperation and failures in innovation projects: Empirical evidence from French CIS data. Research policy, 38, 45-57.
Li, X., Zheng, Y. & Wang, C. L. 2016. Inter-firm collaboration in new product development in Chinese pharmaceutical companies. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 33, 165-193.
Lindgreen, E. & Horn, D. 2015. On the road to corporatestartup collaboration.
Livieri, B. & Kaczmarek, M. Modeling of Collaborative Enterprises--CSFs-Driven High-Level Requirements.  2015 IEEE 17th Conference on Business Informatics, 2015. IEEE, 199-208.
Liyanage, C., Elhag, T., Ballal, T. & Li, Q. 2009. Knowledge communication and translation–a knowledge transfer model. Journal of Knowledge management.
Marxt, C. & Link, P. 2002. Success factors for cooperative ventures in innovation and production systems. International Journal of Production Economics, 77, 219-229.
Mazloomi Khamseh, H. & Jolly, D. R. 2008. Knowledge transfer in alliances: determinant factors. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12, 37-50.
Minshall, T., Mortara, L., Valli, R. & Probert, D. 2010. Making “asymmetric” partnerships work. Research-Technology Management, 53, 53-63.
Miotti, L. & Sachwald, F. 2003. Co-operative R&D: why and with whom?: An integrated framework of analysis. Research policy, 32, 1481-1499.
Möller, K. & Svahn, S. 2003. Managing strategic nets: A capability perspective. Marketing theory, 3, 209-234.
Morgan, R. M. & Hunt, S. D. 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of marketing, 58, 20-38.
Narula, R. 2004. R&D collaboration by SMEs: new opportunities and limitations in the face of globalisation. Technovation, 24, 153-161.
Nielsen, B. B. 2007. Determining international strategic alliance performance: A multidimensional approach. International Business Review, 16, 337-361.
Oughton, D., Mortara, L. & Minshall, T. 2013. Managing asymmetric relationships in open innovation: lessons from multinational companies and SMEs. Open Innovation in the Food and Beverage Industry. Elsevier.
Polzer, J. T. 2004. How subgroup interests and reputations moderate the effect of organizational identification on cooperation. Journal of Management, 30, 71-96.
Porto Gomez, I., Otegi Olaso, J. R. & Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, J. M. 2016. Trust builders as open Innovation intermediaries. Innovation, 18, 145-163.
Reuer, J. J. & Lahiri, N. 2014. Searching for alliance partners: Effects of geographic distance on the formation of R&D collaborations. Organization Science, 25, 283-298.
Rothaermel, F. T. & Deeds, D. L. 2006. Alliance type, alliance experience and alliance management capability in high-technology ventures. Journal of business venturing, 21, 429-460.
Sammer, J. 2006. Alliances: How to get desired outcomes. Business Finance, 12, 38-40.
Schoenmakers, W. & Duysters, G. 2006. Learning in strategic technology alliances. Technology analysis & strategic management, 18, 245-264.
Segers, J.-P. 1993. Strategic partnering between new technology based firms and large established firms in the biotechnology and micro-electronics industries in Belgium. Small Business Economics, 5, 271-281.
Shah, R. H. & Swaminathan, V. 2008. Factors influencing partner selection in strategic alliances: The moderating role of alliance context. Strategic Management Journal, 29, 471-494.
Shin, I. 2005. Evolution of the KOSDAQ Stock Market: Evaluation and Policy Issues. CAPITAL MARKETS IN ASIA: CHANGING ROLES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.
Sie, R. L., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Stoyanov, S. & Sloep, P. B. 2014. Factors that influence cooperation in networks for innovation and learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 377-384.
Solesvik, M. Z. & Encheva, S. 2010. Partner selection for interfirm collaboration in ship design. Industrial Management & Data Systems.
Spithoven, A., Vanhaverbeke, W. & Roijakkers, N. 2013. Open innovation practices in SMEs and large enterprises. Small business economics, 41, 537-562.
Stern, I., Dukerich, J. M. & Zajac, E. 2014. Unmixed signals: How reputation and status affect alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 35, 512-531.
Stolwijk, C. C., Den Hartigh, E., Vanhaverbeke, W. P., Ortt, J. R. & Van Beers, C. 2015. Cooperating with technologically (dis) similar alliance partners: the influence of the technology life cycle and the impact on innovative and market performance. Technology analysis & strategic management, 27, 925-945.
Szulanski, G. 1996. Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic management journal, 17, 27-43.
Talebi, K., Rezazadeh, A. & Najmabadi, A. 2015a. SME alliance performance: The impacts of alliance entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, and intellectual capital. Talebi, K., Rezazadeh, A., & Najmabadi, AD (2015). SME alliance performance: the impacts of alliance entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, and intellectual capital. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24, 187-207.
Talebi, K., Rezazadeh, A. & Najmabadi, A. D. 2015b. SME alliance performance: the impacts of alliance entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, and intellectual capital. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24, 187-207.
Thorgren, S., Wincent, J. & Örtqvist, D. 2012. Unleashing synergies in strategic networks of SMEs: The influence of partner fit on corporate entrepreneurship. International Small Business Journal, 30, 453-471.
Van De Vrande, V., Vanhaverbeke, W. & Duysters, G. 2009. External technology sourcing: The effect of uncertainty on governance mode choice. Journal of business venturing, 24, 62-80.
Vanhaverbeke, W., Duysters, G. & Noorderhaven, N. 2002. External technology sourcing through alliances or acquisitions: An analysis of the application-specific integrated circuits industry. Organization Science, 13, 714-733.
Vásquez-Urriago, Á. R., Barge-Gil, A. & Rico, A. M. 2016. Science and technology parks and cooperation for innovation: Empirical evidence from Spain. Research Policy, 45, 137-147.
Weiblen, T. & Chesbrough, H. W. 2015. Engaging with startups to enhance corporate innovation. California management review, 57, 66-90.
Yin, R. K. 2017. Case study research and applications: Design and methods, Sage publications.
Zhang, A. 2014. Collaboration in the Australian and Chinese mobile telecommunication markets, Springer.
Zhang, J., Baden-Fuller, C. & Mangematin, V. 2007. Technological knowledge base, R&D organization structure and alliance formation: Evidence from the biopharmaceutical industry. Research policy, 36, 515-528.