الگوی طراحی ساختار اجتماعات کاری بر مبنای متغیرهای سازمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علم و صنعت

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات

3 دانشگاه صنعتی مالک اشتر

چکیده

اجتماعات کاری، ابزاری برای تبادل تجربههای برتر و فرصتی برای افزایش سطح یادگیری فردی و سازمانی هستند. توسعه این ساختارهای اجتماعی، به یک راهبرد اساسی برای بهبود فرآیند نوآوری تبدیل شده است. محققان و فعالان مدیریت دانش اعتقاد دارند، مدیریت کردن اجتماعات کاری، همسو با اهداف سازمان، نتایج بسیار مطلوبی در فرآیند نوآوری سازمان خواهد داشت. بررسی پژوهشهای قبلی نشان میدهد که در توسعه و مدیریت اجتماعات کاری، روابط میان متغیرهای سازمانی و مولفههای موثر در طراحی اجتماعات کاری بررسی نشده است. به عبارت دیگر، توسعه اجتماعات کاری مستقل از متغیرهای سازمانی بررسی شده است. از این رو پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی روابط میان متغیرهای سازمانی و مولفههای طراحی اجتماعات کاری انجام شد. بدین منظور پس از شناسایی 17 متغیر سازمانی و 13 مولفه مؤثر در طراحی اجتماعات کاری، روش دلفی فازی برای تبیین ارتباط میان این متغیرها مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. محدوده مطالعه این پژوهش، یک سازمان صنعتی راهبردی بود. دادههای پژوهش با نظرخواهی و توزیع پرسشنامه میان 11 نفر از خبرگان سازمان مورد مطالعه جمعآوری گردید. نتایج این پژوهش نشان میدهد 17 متغیر سازمانی شناسایی شده بر 13 مولفه طراحی اجتماعات کاری اثر گذار هستند. الگوی طراحی شده در این پژوهش، علاوه بر اینکه مبنای مناسبی برای ارزیابی و انتخاب اجتماعات کاری محسوب میشود، به روشنی روابط میان متغیرهای سازمانی و اجتماعات کاری را نیر مشخص میکند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Model for Designing Communities of Practice based on Organizational Variables

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolla Jassbi 1
  • Javad Jasbi 2
  • Mostafa Jafari 1
  • Peyman Akhavan 3
  • Morteza Piri 1
1 University of Science & Technology
2 Islamic Azad University
3 Malekashtar University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Communities of practice (CoP) are tools for exchanging best practices and a chance for increasing the level of individual and organizational learning. Developing these social structures has become a fundamental strategy for improving innovation process. Researchers and practitioners of knowledge management believe that managing CoPs in alignment with organizational goals will have favorable results for organization. Reviewing previous studies and experiences reveals that the relationships between organizational variables and CoPs designing and managing have not been investigated properly; that is the development of communities of practice has only been investigated as independent from organizational variables. This study aims to investigate the relationships between organizational variables and CoPs' design elements, applying fuzzy method in the context of an industrial and strategic organization. The data is gathered through interviews with and questionnaires distributed among 11 experts in the aforementioned organization. The results show that 17 organizational variables have effects on 13 CoPs designing elements. Furthermore, the conceptual model of this study besides providing a pattern for managers to evaluate and select CoPs, clearly confirms the relationship between organizational variables and CoPs designing elements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • communities of practice
  • the typology of CoPs
  • organizational variables affecting CoPs

[1] Duguid, P. ‘‘Prologue: community of practice: then and now’’, in Amin, A. and Roberts, J. (Eds), Community, Economic Creativity and Organization, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, pp. 1-10. 2008.

[2] Lave, J. and Wenger, E.C. “Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation”, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991.

[3] Kim, H. W.,  Zheng, J. R. and Gupta, s. “Examining knowledge contribution from the perspective of an online identity in blogging communities”. Computers in Human Behavior. 27, pp. 1760–1770, 2011.

[4] Harvey, J. F. O. Cohendet, P. Simon, L. and Dubois, L E. Another cog in the machine: Designing communities of practice in professional bureaucracies. European Management Journal, 31(1), pp. 27- 40, 2013.

[5] Galliers, R.D. Further developments in information systems strategizing: unpacking the concept. In: Galliers, R.D., Currie, W. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Management Information Systems: Critical Perspectives and New Directions. Oxford University Press, USA, Oxford, pp. 329–345, 2011.

[6] Wenger, E. McDermott, R. & Snyder, W. M. Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.

[7] Wenger, E. C. & Snyder, W. M. "Communities of practice. The organizational frontier". Harvard Business Review, 78(1),  pp. 139–145, 2000.

[8] Blackmore, C. Learning systems and communities of practice for environmental decision making PhD thesis Milton Keynes: The Open University, 2009.

[9] Iaquinto, B, Ison, R and Faggian, R.,"Creating communities of practice: scoping purposeful design", Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(1),  pp. 4 – 21, 2011.

[10] Dube, L., Bouhris, A., Jacob, R. "The impact of structuring characteristics on the launching of virtual communities of practice". Journal of Organizational Change Management 18(2), pp. 145–166, 2005.

[11] Hara, N., Shachaf, P., Stoerger, S. " Online communities of practice typology revisited". Journal of Information Science, 35 (6), pp. 1–18,  2009.

[12] Kostas, A. and Sofos, A. "Internet-Mediated Communities of Practice: Identifying a Typology of Critical Elements". Intelligent Adaptation & Personalization Techniques, 408, pp. 311–334. 2012.

[13] Hara, N. and Kling, R. “Communities of practice with and without information technology”. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 39 (1), pp. 338–349, 2002.

[14] Andriessen JHE. “Working with Groupware: Understanding and evaluating collaboration technology”. Springer Verlag: London, 2002

[15] Pavlin, S. “Community of practice in a small research institute”. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(4), pp. 136–144, 2006.

[16] Hara, N. “Communities of practice: Fostering peer-to-peer learning and informal knowledge sharing in the work place”. Berlin, Germany, Springer, 2008.

[17] Saint-Onge, H. and Wallace, D. “Leveraging Communities of Practice for Strategic Advantage”, Butterworth Heinemann, London and New York, NY. 2003.

[18] Dubé, L., Bourhis, A. and Jacob, R. “Towards a typology of virtual communities of practice”, Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management 1, pp. 69-93, 2006.

[19] Andriessen JHE, Huis in’t Veld M, Soekijad M. Communities of Practice for Knowledge Sharing. In How to Manage Experience Sharing: From Organizational Surprises to Organizational Knowledge, Andriessen JHE, Fahlbruch B (eds). Elsevier Science Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2004.

[20] Verburg, R. & Andrissen, J. “The assessment of communities of practice”. Knowledge and Process Management, 13(1), pp. 13-25, 2006.

[21] Garavan, T.N., Carbery, R. and Murphy, E.,“Managing intentionally created communities of practices for knowledge sourcing across organizational boundaries”, The Learning Organization, 14(1), pp. 34-49, 2007.

[22] Scarso, E., Bolisani, E., & Salvador, L. "A systematic framework for analysing the critical success factors of communities of practice". Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(6), pp. 431–447,  2009.

[23] Storck, J. and Hill, P.A “Knowledge diffusion through ‘strategic communities’”, Sloan Management Review, 41(2), pp. 63-74, 2000.

[24] Koch, M., Fusco, J. "Designing for Growth: Enabling Communities of Practice to Develop and Extend Their Work Online. In: Kimble, C., Hildreth, P. (eds.) Communities of Practice: Creating Learning Environments for Educators",Information Age Publishing, 2, 2008.

[25] Jafari, M.; Fathian, M.; Jahani, A.; Akhavan, P. “Exploring the contextual dimensions of organization from knowledge management perspective”. Journal of Knowledge Management, Emerald, 38(1), pp. 53-71, 2008.

[26] Jeon, S. H., Kim, Y. G. and Koh, J. “Individual, social, and organizational contexts for active knowledge sharing in communities of practice”. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(10), pp. 12423–12431, 2011.

   [27] جعفری، ن. و منتظر، غ. استفاده از روش دلفی فازی برای تعیین سیاست های مالی کشور، فصلنامه پژوهش های اقتصادی، 1(8)، صص. 91-114، 1387.

[28] Wey, W.M. and  Wu, K.Y. “Using ANP priorities with goal programming in resource allocation in Transportation”, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 46(7), pp. 985–1000, 2007.

[29] Klir G.J. and Yuan B. “Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications”. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

[30] Li, Y.H., Huang, J.W. & Tsai, M.T. Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: The role of knowledge creation process. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(4), pp. 440–449, 2009.

[31] Fang, Y. H. and Chiu, C-M. In justice we trust: Exploring knowledge-sharing continuance intentions in virtual communities of practice. Computers in Human Behavior. 26(2), pp.  235–246, 2010.

[32] Hong, D., Suh, E., & Koo, C. Developing strategies for overcoming barriers to knowledge sharing based on conversational knowledge management: A case study of a financial company. Expert systems with Applications, 38(12), pp. 14417-14427,  2011.