بررسی تأثیر آموزش کارآفرینی بر دستگاه فکری کارآفرینانه: نقش میانجی خلاقیت و هوشیاری کارآفرینانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،تهران،ایران

2 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر آموزش کارآفرینی بر دستگاه فکری کارآفرینانه با توجه به نقش میانجی خلاقیت و هوشیاری کارآفرینانه است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، مدیران ارشد 140 شرکت راهبردی کشور است که از این میان، 105 شرکت به عنوان نمونه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته‌اند. ابزار اصلی گردآوری داده‌ها، پرسشنامه است که سطح روایی و پایایی آن، برای تمامی سازه‌ها مورد قبول بوده است. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها ، از روش مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری و نرم‌افزار لیزرل استفاده شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که آموزش کارآفرینی و خلاقیت بر دستگاه فکری کارآفرینانه بی‌تأثیر است، اما آموزش کارآفرینی بر خلاقیت و هوشیاری تأثیر دارد. همچنین، هوشیاری نقش میانجی را در رابطه‌ی آموزش کارآفرینی و دستگاه فکری کارآفرینانه ایفا می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Entrepreneurship Training on Entrepreneurial Mindset: Mediating Role of Creativity and Entrepreneurial Alertness. (Organizations of MOD)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad naeiji 1
  • Ebrahim Ebrahimi 2
1 Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran,Iran
2 Shahid Beheshti Universty,Tehran,Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aims to investigate the impact of entrepreneurship training on entrepreneurial mindset according to mediating role of creativity and entrepreneurial alertness. By Cochrane formula, 105 companies from 140 organizations of Ministry of Defence (MOD) have been selected randomly. The main tool for collecting data is questionnaire, which its level of validity and reliability has been acceptable for all structures. To analyze the data, structural simulating equations and Lisrel software is used. Results show that entrepreneurship training and creativity on the entrepreneurship mindset system is not effective, but entrepreneurship training on creativity and awareness is effective. Also, awareness plays the role of mediator in the relationship of entrepreneurship training and entrepreneurship mindset system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship Training
  • creativity
  • Entrepreneurial Alertness
  • Entrepreneurial Mindset

Athayde, R., 2009. Measuring enterprise potential in young people. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,

33(2), pp. 481-500.

Autio, E., Keeley, R., Klofsten, M. & Ulfstedt, T., 1997. Entrepreneurial intent among students: testing an

intent model in Asia, Scandinavia and USA. Wellesley, Babson College.

Bandura, A., 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: a Social Cognitive Theory. NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Baron, R., 1998. Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when entrepreneurs think differently

than other People. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(3), pp. 275-294.

Baron, R. A., 2004. The cognitive perspective: A valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship’s basic – why

questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), pp. 221-239.

Baron, R. A. & Ensley, M. D., 2006. Opportunity recognition as the detection of meaningful patterns:

evidence from comparisons of novice and experienced entrepreneurs. Management Science, 52(9), pp.

1331-1344.

Basadur, M., Taggar, S. & Pringle, P., 1999. Improving the measurement of divergent thinking attitudes in

organizations. Journal of Creativity Research, Volume 33, pp. 75-111.

Baum, J. R. & Locke, E. A., 2004. The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent

venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), pp. 587-598.

Beghetto, R. A. & Kaufman, J. C., 2015. Promise and pitfalls in differentiating amongst the Cs of creativity.

Creativity Research Journal, 27(2), pp. 240-241.

Brorström, B., 2002. The world’s richest municipality: The importance of institutions for municipal development.

Journal of Economic Issues , 36(1), pp. 55-78.

Busenitz, L., 1996. Research on entrepreneurial alertness: sampling, measurement, and theoretical issues.

Journal of Small Business Management, 34(4), pp. 35-44.

Chaston, I. & SadlerSmith, E., 2012. Entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurial orientation and firm capability

in the creative industries. British Journal of Management, 23(3), pp. 415-432.

Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G. & Crick, A., 1998. Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs

from managers?. Journal of business venturing, 13(4), pp. 295-316.

Cheng, Y. C. & Tam, W., 1997. Multi-models of quality in education. Quality Assurance in Education, 5(1),

pp. 22-31.

Cheong Cheng, Y. & Ming Tam, W., 1997. Multi-models of quality in education. Quality assurance in Education,

5(1), pp. 22-31.

Cohen-Kdoshay, O. & Meiran, N., 2007. The representation of instructions in working memory leads to

autonomous response activation: evidence from the first trials in the flanker paradigm. Quarterly Journal of

Experimental Psychology (Colchester), 60(8), pp. 1140-1154.

Cohen, M. D. & Axelrod, R., 2000. Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific

Frontier. Simon and Schuster.

Cope, J. & Pittaway, L., 2007. Entrepreneurship education: a systematic review of the evidence. International

Small Business Journal, 25(5), pp. 479-510.

DeTienne, D. & Chandler, G., 2004. Opportunity identification and its role in the entrepreneurial classroom:

a pedagogical approach and empirical test. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3), pp. 242-

257.

Dewett, T., 2004. Employee creativity and the role of risk. European Journal of Innovation Management,

7(4), pp. 257-266.

Drucker, P. F. & Noel, J. L., 1986. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: practices and principles. The Journal of

Continuing Higher Education, 34(1), pp. 22-23.

Dweck, C., 2008. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Ballantine.

Dweck, C. S. & Leggett, E. L., 1988. A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological

review, 95(2), pp. 256-273.

Ertuna, Z. & Gurel, E., 2011. The moderating role of higher education on entrepreneurship. Education+Training,

53(5), pp. 387-402.

Fayolle, A., Gailly, B. & Lassas-Clerc, N., 2006. Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes:

a new methodology. Journal of European industrial training, 30(9), pp. 701-720.

Freitas, A. L., Gollwitzer, P. & Trope, Y., 2004. The influence of abstract and concrete mindsets on anticipating

and guiding others’ self-regulatory efforts. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(6), pp.

739-752.

Gaglio, C. M. & Katz, J. A., 2001. The psychological basis of opportunity identification: Entrepreneurial

alertness. Small business economics, 16(2), pp. 95-111.

96

Galloway, L. & Brown, W., 2002. Entrepreneurship education at university: a driver in the creation of high

growth firms?. Education+ Training, 44(8/9), pp. 398-405.

Gefen, D. & Straub, D., 2005. A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS-Graph: Tutorial and annotated

example. Communications of the Association for Information systems, 16(1), p. 5.

Gimeno, J., Folta, T., Cooper, A. & Woo, C., 1997. Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and

the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4), pp. 750-783.

Gollwitzer, P. M., 1990. Action phases and mind-sets. Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations

of social behavior, Volume 2, pp. 53-92.

Gorman, G., Hanlon, D. & King, W., 1997. Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise

education and education for small business management: a ten-year literature review. International

small business journal, 15(3), pp. 56-77.

Hannon, P., 2007. Enterprise for all? The fragility of enterprise provision across England’s HEIs. Journal of

Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(2), pp. 183-210.

Haynie, J. M., Shephered, D., Mosakowski, E. P. & Earley, C., 2010. A situated metacognitive model of the

entrepreneurial mindset. Journal of Business Venturing, Volume 25, pp. 217-229.

Heinonen, J., Hytti, U. & Stenholm, P., 2011. The role of creativity in opportunity search and business idea

creation. Education+Training, 53(8/9), pp. 659-672.

Hennessey, B. & Amabile, T., 2010. Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 61, pp. 569-598.

Henry, C., Hill, F. & Leitch, C., 2004. The effectiveness of training for new business creation – a longitudinal

study. International Small Business Journal, 22(3), pp. 249-271.

Humphrey, G., 1951. Thinking: an introduction to its experimental psychology.

Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A. & Sirmon, D. G., 2003. A model of strategic entrepreneurship: The construct and

its dimensions. Journal of management, 29(6), pp. 963-989.

Kaish, S. & Gilad, B., 1991. Characteristics of opportunities search of entrepreneurs versus executives:

sources, interests, general alertness. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(1), pp. 5-61.

Karwowski, M., 2009. I’m creative, but am I creative? Similarities and differences between self-evaluated

small and big-C creativity in Poland. Korean Journal of Thinking and Problem Solving, 19(2), pp. 7-26.

Karwowski, M., 2014. Creative mindsets: Measurement, correlates, consequences. Psychology of Aesthetics,

Creativity, and the Arts, 8(1), pp. 62-70.

Kaufman, J. C., 2016. Creativity 101 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

Kaufman, J. C. & Beghetto, R. A., 2013. In praise of Clark Kent: Creative metacognition and the importance

of teaching kids when (not) to be creative. Roeper Review, 35(3), pp. 155-165.

Kimberly, J. R. & Evanisko, M. J., 1981. Organizational innovation: The influence of individual, organizational,

and contextual factors on hospital adoption of technological and administrative innovations. Academy

of management journal, 24(4), pp. 689-713.

Kirzner, I., 1973. Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Kirzner, I., 1979. Perception, Opportunity, and Profit, Studies in the Theory of Entrepreneurship. Chicago,

IL: University of Chicago Press.

Kirzner, I., 1999. Creativity and/or alertness: a reconsideration of the Schumpeterian entrepreneur. Review

of Austrian Economics, 11(1/2), pp. 5-17.

Kirzner, I. M., 2009. The alert and creative entrepreneur: A clarification. Small Business Economics, 32(2),

pp. 145-152.

Koontz, H., O’Donnell, C. & Weihrich, H., 1980. Management (7th ed.). Tokyo: McGraw-Hill.

Krauss, S., Frese, M., Friedrich, C. & Unger, J., 2005. Entrepreneurial orientation: a psychological model

of success among southern African small business owners. European Journal of Work and Organizational

Psychology , 14(3), pp. 315-328.

Kuratako, D., 2006. A Tribute to 50 years of Excellence in Entrepreneurship and Small Business. Journal of

Small Business Management, 44(3), pp. 483-492.

Langowitz, N. S. & Allen, I. E., 2010. Small Business Leadership: Does Being the Founder Matter?. Journal

of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 23(1), pp. 53-63.

Liu, L., Mynderse, J. A., Gerhart, A. L. & Arslan, S., 2015. Fostering the entrepreneurial mindset in the junior

and senior mechanical engineering curriculum with a multi-course problem-based learning experience

IEEE, pp. 1-5.

Madjar, N., Oldham, G. R. & Pratt, M. G., 2002. There’s no place like home? The contributions of work

and nonwork creativity support to employees’ creative performance. The Academy of Management Journal,

45(4), pp. 757-767.

Mahmood, A. & Cheng, M., 2005. E-entrepreneurship in knowledge economy: implications for the Asia-Pacific

economies. The Business Review, Cambridge, 4(1), pp. 153-160.

Martin, B., McNally, J. & Kay, M., 2013. Examining the formation of human capital in entrepreneurship: a

meta-analysis of entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(2), pp. 211-224.

Mathisen, J. & Arnulf, J., 2013. Competing mindsets in entrepreneurship: The cost of doubt The International.

Journal of Management Education , 11(3), p. 132–141.

Mathur, P., Block, L. & Yucel-Aybat, O., 2014. The effects of goal progress cues: An implicit theory perspective.

Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(4), pp. 484-496.

Matlay, H., 2008. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial outcomes. Journal of Small

Business and Enterprise Development, 15(2), pp. 382-396.

McGrath, R. G. & MacMillan, I. C., 2000. The entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating

opportunity in an age of uncertainty. Harvard Business Press.

McMullen, J. S. & Shepherd, D. A., 2006. Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of

the entrepreneur. Academy of Management review, 31(1), pp. 132-152.

Meyer, G. D. & Heppard, K. A., 2000. Entrepreneurship as strategy: Competing on the entrepreneurial edge.

pp. 101-114.

Miles, G., Heppard, K. A., Miles, R. E. & Snow, C. C., 2000. Entrepreneurial strategies. Entrepreneurship as

strategy. Competing on the entrepreneurial edge, pp. 101-114.

Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F. & Schindehutte, M., 2001. Towards integration: understanding entrepreneurship

through frameworks. The international journal of entrepreneurship and innovation, 2(1), pp. 35-49.

Mueller, S. L. & Thomas, A. S., 2001. Culture and entrepreneurial potential: A nine country study of locus of

control and innovativeness. Journal of business venturing, 16(1), pp. 51-75.

Munoz, C. A., Mosey, S. & Binks, M., 2011. Developing opportunity-identification capabilities in the classroom:

visual evidence for changing mental frames. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(2),

p. 277–295.

Naudé, W., 2011. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.

Neck, C. & Houghton, J. D., 2006. Two decades of self-leadership theory and research.. Journal of Manage.

rial Psychology, 21(4), p. 270–295.

Neck, C. P. & Manz, C. C., 1996. Thought self-leadership: the impact of mental strategies training on

em.ployee cognition, behavior, and affect. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(5), p. 445–467.

Neck, H. & Greene, P., 2011. Entrepreneurship education: known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small

.Business Management, 49(1), pp. 55-70.

Oosterbeek, H., Van Praag, M. & Ijsselstein, A., 2010. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entre.

preneurship skills and motivation. European economic review, 54(3), pp. 442-454.

.Osborne, J., 2008. Best Practices in Quantitative Methods. Sage.

Puente-Diaz, R., Maier, M. A., Brem, A. & Cavazos-Arroyo, J., 2016. Generalizability of the four C model

of creativity: A cross-cultural examination of creative perception. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and

the Arts, 10(1), pp. 14-20.

Rhodes, M., 1961. An analysis of creativity. The Phi Delta Kappan, 42(7), pp. 305-310.

Schumpeter, J. A., 1961. The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest,

and the business cycle.:Harvard University Press..

Sevincer, A. T., Kluge, L. & Oettingen, G., 2014. Implicit theories and motivational focus: Desired future

versus present reality. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), pp. 36-46.

Shane, S., 2012. Reflections on the 2010 AMR decade award: delivering on the promise of entrepreneurship

as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 37(1), pp. 10-20.

Shane, S., Nicolaoum, N., Cherkas, L. & Spector, T. D., 2010. Do openness to experience and recognizing

opportunities have the same genetic source?. Human Resource Management, 49(2), p. 291–303.

Shane, S. & Venkataraman, S., 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of

management review, 25(1), pp. 217-226.

Short, J. C., Ketchen, D. J., Shook, C. L. & Ireland, R. D., 2010. The concept of opportunity in entrepreneurship

research: past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management, 36(1), p. 40–65.

Skinner, B. F., 1978. Reflections on behaviorism and society.

Solesvik, M., Westhead, P., Matlay, H. & Parsyak, N., 2013. Entrepreneurial assets and mindsets: benefit

from university entrepreneurship education investment. Education+ Training, 55(8/9), pp. 748-762.

Solomon, G., Duffy, S. & Tarabishy, A., 2002. The state of entrepreneurship education in the United States: a

nationwide survey and analysis. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1(1), pp. 65-86.

Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S. & Al-Lahan, A., 2007. Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial

intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of

Business Venturing, 22(4), pp. 566-591.

Tang, J., Kacmar, K. & Busenitz, L., 2012. Entrepreneurial alertness in the pursuit of new opportunities.

Journal of Business Venturing, 27(1), pp. 77-94.

Thagard, P., 2006. Hot Thought: Mechanisms and Applications of Emotional Cognition. MIT Press.

Thompson, J., 1999. The world of the entrepreneur – a new perspective. Journal of Workplace Learning:

Employee Counselling Today, 11(6), pp. 209-224.

Timmons, J., 1999. New Venture Creation – Entrepreneurship for the 21st century. New York: Irwin Mc-

Graw-Hill.

Tuggle, C., 2002. Encouraging Entrepreneurial Endeavors in Established Enterprise. Texas A&M University,

Department of Management.

Udwadia, F. E., 1990. Creativity and innovation in organizations: Two models and managerial implications.

Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 38(1), pp. 65-80.

Uy, M. A. et al., 2015. Proactivity, adaptability and boundaryless career attitudes: The mediating role of

entrepreneurial alertness.. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 86, pp. 115-123.

van Gelderen, M. et al., 2008. Explaining entrepreneurial intentions by the means of the theory of planned

behaviour. Career Development International, 13(6), pp. 538-559.

Von Graevenitz, G., Harhoff, D. & Weber, R., 2010. The effects of entrepreneurship education. Journal of

Economic Behavior & Organization, 76(1), pp. 90-112.

Wadeson, N., 2006. Cognitive aspects of entrepreneurship: decision-making and attitudes to risk. In: M.

Casson, B. Yeung, A. Basu & N. Wadeson, eds. The Oxford handbook of entrepreneurship. OUP.

Walter, S., Parboteeah, K. & Walter, A., 2013. University departments and selfemployment intentions of

business students: a cross-level analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(2), pp. 175-200.

Whetten, D. A. & Cameron, K. S., 1983. Management skill training: A needed addition to the management

curriculum. Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal, 8(2), pp. 10-15.

Yang, S.-J. & Chandra, Y., 2009. Agent based simulation in entrepreneurial research. Academy of Management

Chicago.

Yeager, D. S. & Dweck, C. S., 2012. Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal

characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), pp. 302-314.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S. & Hills, G., 2005. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial

intentions. Journal of applied psychology, 90(6), pp. 1265-1272.